New PDF release: A history of the theories of aether and electricity Vol 2

By Edmund T. Whittaker

Particular, debatable, and often stated, this survey deals hugely exact bills about the improvement of principles and theories concerning the nature of electrical energy and house (aether). with ease obtainable to normal readers in addition to highschool scholars, lecturers, and undergraduates, it contains a lot info unavailable elsewhere.
This single-volume variation contains either The Classical Theories and the trendy Theories, which have been initially released individually. the 1st quantity covers the theories of classical physics from the age of the Greek philosophers to the overdue nineteenth century. the second one quantity chronicles discoveries that resulted in the advances of contemporary physics, concentrating on particular relativity, quantum theories, common relativity, matrix mechanics, and wave mechanics. famous historian of technological know-how I. Bernard Cohen, who reviewed those books for Scientific American, saw, "I understand of no different background of electrical energy that is as sound as Whittaker's. All those that have stumbled on stimulation from his works will learn this informative and exact heritage with curiosity and profit."

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E. techniques which were well known to Newton and his contemporaries. 2 could have been performed. Even without a universal time, the construction of inertial systems and the definition of a topological time was possible. The metric time could have been introduced by the requirement that the equation of motion should look as simple as possible. (In the real history of physics, this convention was found by H. Poincare´ in 1898). Even the synchronisation of distant clocks by means of light signals in the sense of Einstein was already possible, since these signals were known to proceed with a finite velocity of light.

There is a maximal velocity of moving observers Consider two inertial observers O1 and O2, where O1 is at rest and O2 is moving with constant velocity v – measured by O1. e. v < o, where o is a universal constant that agrees numerically with the velocity c of light in vacuum. This means that the observer O2 cannot move faster than the velocity of light. 5 Could Special Relativity Have Been Discovered Already by Newton? 41 These five statements are in contradiction to the corresponding statements of classical mechanics.

3 Space-Time Intervals and Relativistic Mechanics 29 The time intervals of a moving clock CI (here the clock CI at rest in I) appears to another observer (here at rest in I0 ) as dilated, compared with the period of clock CI0 of similar type at rest in I0 . In other words, the moving clock CI proceeds more slowly than the clock CI0 at rest in I0 . This phenomenon is usually called “time dilatation”. e. on account of the principle of relativity, we can also invert the whole situation. A clock CI0 at rest in I0 with the period Dt0 in I0 , has in the coordinates of the inertial system I, which is moving with the velocity (Àv) relative to I0 , the period Dt ¼ gðvÞDt0 rDt0 : In comparison to a clock CI, of similar type, at rest in I, the moving clock CI0 is again slower.

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A history of the theories of aether and electricity Vol 2 by Edmund T. Whittaker

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