A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish - download pdf or read online

By John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1461583683

ISBN-13: 9781461583684

ISBN-10: 1461583705

ISBN-13: 9781461583707

(abridged and revised) This reference grammar deals intermediate and complex scholars a cause­ ably finished consultant to the morphology and syntax of trained speech and undeniable prose in Spain and Latin the United States on the finish of the 20 th century. Spanish is the most, often the only real authentic language of twenty-one countries,} and it really is set reasonable to overhaul English by way of the yr 2000 in numbers 2 of local audio system. This big geographical and political variety guarantees that Spanish is an effective deal much less unified than French, German or perhaps English, the latter kind of across the world standardized in response to both American or British norms. till the Nineteen Sixties, the factors of the world over right Spanish have been dictated through the genuine Academia Espanola, however the status of this establishment has now sunk so low that its so much solemn decrees are infrequently taken heavily - witness the destiny of the spelling reforms indexed within the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortograjia, which have been purported to come into strength in all Spanish-speaking international locations in 1959 and, approximately 40 years later, are nonetheless selectively neglected through publishers and literate people all over the place. actually that during Spanish 'correctness' is these days determined, because it is in all dwelling languages, via the consensus of local audio system; yet consensus approximately linguistic utilization is clearly tough to accomplish among greater than twenty self reliant, commonly scattered and occasionally collectively adversarial nations. Peninsular Spanish is itself in flux.

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One can say either Public6 tres artfculos sobre poesla 'He published three articles on poetry' or . . sobre la poesia 'on Poetry'. The latter implies the universal concept 'Poetry'; the former implies 'aspects of poetry'. The difference is slight, and the strong modem tendency is to omit the article. 11 The definite article after de When two nouns are joined by de to form what is effectively a compound noun, the article is omitted before the second noun. Compare la rueda del coche 'the wheel of/from the car', and una rueda de coche 'a car wheel': la carne de la vaca la carne de vaca los sombreros de las mujeres los sombreros de mujer el dolor de muelas un crimen de pasi6n lecciones de contabilidad the meat of the cow beef the women's hats women's hats toothache a crime of passion lessons in accountancy Such combinations are often denoted in English by compound nouns: la noche de la fiesta 'the night of the party', la noche de fiesta 'party night'.

B) A number of set phrases in Spanish take no article whereas their English equivalent usually does. They must be learned separately: a corto/largo plazo cuesta abajo cuesta arriba a gusto de en alta mar en camino endicho mes en manos de in the shortllong run down (the) hill up (the) hill to the liking of on the high seas on the way in the said month at/in the hands of en nombrede hacia oriente (hacia el este) a titulo de a voluntad de de plantilla etc. in the name of towards the east in the capacity of at the discretion of on the payroll/staff This applies only to set adverbial phrases: compare en las manos de Julia 'in Julia's hands'.

Vargas Llosa La Iglesia en Espana ayer y manana The Green House, by ... 2d. 14 Omission in headlines In Spain the grammar of headline language is fairly normal and article omission follows the general rules. 1, note (iii). 15 The definite article with names of unique entities As in English, the definite article is used with nouns which refer to things of which there is only one. Unlike English, Spanish also uses the definite article with mountains, volcanoes, Heaven and Hell: El Taj Mahal, el Atltintico, el Infierno 'Hell', el Cielolel Parafso 'Heaven'/,Paradise', el Diablo 'the Devil', la Virgen 'the Virgin', el Everest, el Mont Blanc.

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A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish by John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)

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