By Robert V. Giglia R.T., R.D.M.S., Kara L. Mayden R. T., R.D.M.S., Norbert Gleicher M. D. (auth.)
Real-time ultrasonography has entered place of work perform in obstetrics and gynecology. With expanding numbers of sonography platforms getting into the ambulatory place of work surroundings, obstetric sonography at a regimen point (level I) has mostly been the precise region. contemporary advancements in gynecologic real-time sonography have, in spite of the fact that, considerably enlarged the sector of applicability of sonographic apparatus in an place of work atmosphere. The very fast progress of follicular sonography in infertility evaluation and administration has made real-time sonography of accelerating significance to the gynecologic practitioner. In workplace settings just like the authors', gynecologic workplace sonography represents as regards to 50% of all ordered sonography. This instruction manual of workplace sonography in obstetrics and gynecology was once conceived to mirror those adjustments in perform styles. This quantity isn't intended to exchange ordinary sonography texts for the full-time sonographer yet is in its place directed towards the training obstetrician/gynecologist who makes use of real-time sonography within the place of work atmosphere in the framework of day-by-day perform. Technical reviews have been for that reason limited to a minimal, with functional recommendation and photographic examples taking their position. many of the sonographic real-time pictures have been retrieved from the authors' personal records. even if, a few have been acquired during the generosity of neighbors and associates, for which we wish to increase acknowledgment and appreciation. related appreciation is prolonged to Dr. Haim Elrad and Dr. Jari Friberg, who additionally participated within the editorial procedure; to Sheila Martin, who played beautifully as our editorial assistant, a so much tough accountability; and to Hilary Evans, our editor at Plenum Publishing Corporation.
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Real-Time Office Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology
4. Jeanty P, Kirkpatrick C, Dramaix-Wilmet, et al: Ultrasonic evaluation of fetal limb growth. Radiology 1981;140:165. 5. Callen PW (ed): Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1983. 1. • Biparietal Diameter Parameters for an adequate fetal BPD are as follows: The level of BPD should be obtained below the level of the lateral ventricles and just above the level of the orbits and cerebral peduncles. ) o The shape of BPD should be oval. o Midline should be equidistant from both lateral borders.
2). ' REFERENCE 1. Tortora M, Chervenak FA, Mayden KL, Hobbins JC: Diagnosis of single umbilical artery. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63:693. 42 PART I • REAL-TIME SONOGRAPHY IN OBSTETRICS , FIG. 1. (A) ,. . . . THE UMBILICAL CORD Longitudinal scan of the umbilical cord demonstrating two arteries (a) and the umbilical vein (v). Placenta (P), amniotic fluid (AF). (B) Transverse scan demonstrating the umbilical cord (arrows) visualizing two arteries (A) and the umbilical vein (V) . Placenta (P) . FIG.
3. The Fetal Foot Toes are more difficult to identify sonographically than are fingers. However, the antenatal diagnosis of clubfoot has been reported. ) REFERENCE 24. Chervenak FA, Tortora M, Hobbins JC: Antenatal sonographic diagnosis of clubfoot. J Ultrasound Med 1985;4:49. 38 PART I • REAL-TIME SONOGRAPHY IN OBSTETRICS FIG. 1. THE FEMUR (A) Cross section of the lower fetal body demonstrating the femoral heads (FH) and ilium (I). Spine (S). FIG. 2. (B) Long axis of both femurs (F). LOWER LEG AND FOOT (A) Fetal toes (T) can be visualized.
A Practical Guide to Real-Time Office Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology by Robert V. Giglia R.T., R.D.M.S., Kara L. Mayden R. T., R.D.M.S., Norbert Gleicher M. D. (auth.)