By Mrinal K. Bhattacharjee
This textbook discusses how a number of the different types of antibiotics and similar medicines paintings to remedy infections. Then it delves into the very critical subject of the way micro organism have gotten proof against those antibiotics. applicable for a one-semester path at both the graduate or complex undergraduate point, this textbook includes labored examples of (1) experimental methods and (2) examining data.
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Extra resources for Chemistry of Antibiotics and Related Drugs
Usually when new drugs are tested, many of them work in vitro but not in vivo and so those drugs will not be useful clinically. In this case it was just the opposite. The reason it worked only when administered to mice is because during metabolism in the mice the prontosil molecule was broken down to its smaller part called sulfanilamide (para-aminobenzenesulfonamide) which had the antibiotic property (Fig. 2). The dyeing property of the molecule was unrelated to its antibiotic property. Thus, prontosil can be classiﬁed as a “prodrug,” which is deﬁned as a medication that is administered in inactive form and is converted to the active form by metabolic reaction in the body.
Contribution of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics to resistance development and the response of the governments and other regulatory agencies to address the problem are also discussed. 1 Antibiotics Are No Longer Considered to be Miracle Drugs Antibiotics, which were hailed as the miracle drugs that cured most infected people before, do not work in many cases today. This is because bacteria are increasingly becoming resistant to antibiotics at an alarming rate and the resistance is spreading throughout the world among all species of bacteria.
The existing gradient may be that of Na+ or K+, as in transmission of nerve signals or a proton gradient that is used in respiration (oxidative phosphorylation). Note that these gradients are first formed by using energy from ATP, so the ultimate source of energy for both types of active transports is a high energy compound. These existing gradients in the cell can then be used to transport other molecules against their concentration gradients. Active transport is mediated by proteins in the membrane which form pores through with the molecules are transported.
Chemistry of Antibiotics and Related Drugs by Mrinal K. Bhattacharjee