By Choong-Un Kim
Understanding and proscribing electromigration in skinny motion pictures is vital to the ongoing improvement of complicated copper interconnects for built-in circuits. Electromigration in skinny movies and digital units presents an updated evaluate of key themes during this commercially vital quarter. half one comprises 3 introductory chapters, protecting modeling of electromigration phenomena, modeling electromigration utilizing the peridynamics process and simulation and x-ray microbeam reviews of electromigration. half bargains with electromigration concerns in copper interconnects, together with x-ray microbeam research, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure. ultimately, half 3 covers electromigration in solder, with chapters discussing subject matters akin to electromigration-induced microstructural evolution and electromigration in flip-chip solder joints.
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Extra resources for Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices: Materials and Reliability
In other terms, the effective length corresponding to the Blech effect is not the total line length, but rather depends on the local current density and flux divergence. As a consequence, the dc current rule could be relaxed by a certain factor after accurate simulation of the real layout. e. the copper grains are (111) oriented along the z-axis and randomly oriented in the plane x-y. Grain size is set to the order of line width to simulate the ‘bamboo’ case, and line length is set to 2 μm, which means that the line is ‘immortal’ with respect to the usual Blech criteria.
An in-depth analysis of Fig. 14 shows that the stress field is not perfectly symmetric. This can also be observed in concentration distribution, which is not precisely shown here. On the other hand, migration kinetics are slightly accelerated at the cathode and slowed down at the anode. 15 Evolution of the concentration N, at the cathode for two segment lengths and two current densities. 30]. This model is rather simplified: the diffusion paths, the textureinduced stress localization and the current concentration under via are not taken into account here and will be analyzed in a later section.
Ye, A thermodynamic model for electrical current induced damage, Int. J. Solids Struc. 40(26) (2003) 7315–27. A. Montemayor-Aldrete, C. Vázquez-Villanueva, P. Ugalde-Vélez, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. J. Vázquez-Fonseca, A. Mendoza-Allende, H. A. Coyotécatl, Non-equilibrium statistical theory for electromigration damage, Phys. A, Stat Mech. Appl. 387(24) (2008) 6115–25. M. d’Heurle, Electromigration and failure in electronics: an introduction, Proc. IEEE, 59 (1971) 1409–18. 13 M. Shatzkes, J. Lloyd, A model for conductor failure considering diffusion concurrently with electromigration resulting in a current exponent of 2, J.
Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices: Materials and Reliability by Choong-Un Kim