By David Coggon, David Barker, Geoffrey Rose
This perennial bestseller is a perfect introductions to epidemiology in health and wellbeing care. The fifith editon keeps the book's simplicity and brevity, even as offering the reader with the center parts of epidemiology wanted in health and wellbeing care perform and learn. The textual content has been revised all through, with new examples brought to convey the ebook correct brand new.
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Additional info for Epidemiology for the Uninitiated
For example, all questions relating to one phase of the person’s life might be grouped together. As a check on the reliability of information, it may sometimes be helpful to include overlapping questions. In a study of risk factors for back pain, some people reported that their jobs entailed driving for more than four hours a day but did not involve more than two hours sitting. This suggests that they had not properly understood the questions. An important consideration is whether to use closed or open ended questions.
It may be possible to avoid this problem, either by using a single observer or, if material is transportable, by forwarding it all for central examination. Alternatively, the bias within a survey may be neutralised by random allocation of subjects to observers. Each observer should be identified by a code number on the survey record; analysis of results by observer will then indicate any major problems, and perhaps permit some statistical correction for the bias. Random subject variation—When measured repeatedly in the same person, physiological variables like blood pressure tend to show a roughly normal distribution around the subject’s mean.
For this reason it is preferable to obtain advice from a statistician when carrying out all but the simplest analyses. As with earlier stages of data processing, statistical calculations should all be checked. 37 Epidemiology for the Uninitiated A good practice is to retain a copy of the programs and calculations by which each published result was derived from the original data set. This facilitates later checking and audit should it be required. Data protection Recent advances in information technology have led to growing public concern about the security of personal information held by hospitals and other organisations involved in health care.
Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by David Coggon, David Barker, Geoffrey Rose