By F. G. R. Fowkes (auth.), F. G. R. Fowkes PhD, FRCPEd, FFPHM (eds.)
Major epidemiologists from the united kingdom, united states and Europe give a contribution to the 1st ever, a lot wanted complete overview of the epidemiology of peripheral vascular sickness within the reduce limbs.
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Significant epidemiologists from the united kingdom, united states and Europe give a contribution to the 1st ever, a lot wanted accomplished overview of the epidemiology of peripheral vascular sickness within the decrease limbs.
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Additional info for Epidemiology of Peripheral Vascular Disease
In: Rutherford RB (ed) Vascular surgery 3rd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 61-111 Thiele BL, Bandyk DF, ZierJer RE, Strandness DE Jr (1983) A systematic approach to the assessment of aorto-iliac disease. Arch Surg 118:477-81 Wyatt MG, Muir RN, Tennant WG, Scott DJA, Horrocks M (1990) An objective comparison of four stress tests in the assessment of at risk femorodistal grafts. J Cardiovasc Surg 31:340-3 Wyatt MG, Muir RN, Tennant WG, Scott DJA, Baird RN, Horrocks M (1991) Impedance analysis to identify the at risk femoro-distal graft.
The test involves expensive equipment and is time consuming. It may well have a role in diabetics who have calcified blood vessels but is not ideal as a screening test. Laser Doppler Laser Doppler velocimetry measures blood flow velocity in superficial arterioles and capillaries. Monochromatic light generated from a standard helium-neon laser Doppler is conducted to the skin by a series of fibreoptic cables. 5 mm and is reflected back to a second photo diode by contact with flowing red blood cells.
Alternative methods have been evaluated including occlusive calf hyperaemia (Baker 1978) and ankle flexion (Wyatt et al. 1990). These tests allow each leg to be assessed in turn and do not require cardiac monitoring. Segmental Pressures It is possible to assess the severity of arterial disease by indirect measurement of arterial pressures down the leg. Four pneumatic cuffs are applied to the leg; high Fig. 1. Standard exercise test. Non-invasive Tests 19 thigh, above knee, below knee and ankle.
Epidemiology of Peripheral Vascular Disease by F. G. R. Fowkes (auth.), F. G. R. Fowkes PhD, FRCPEd, FFPHM (eds.)