By Rogers Brubaker
"Despite a quarter-century of constructivist theorizing within the social sciences and arts, ethnic teams stay conceived as entities and forged as actors. reporters, policymakers, and researchers frequently body bills of ethnic, racial, and nationwide clash because the struggles of internally homogeneous, externally bounded ethnic teams, races, and countries. In doing so, they unwittingly undertake the language of individuals in such struggles, and give a contribution to the reification of ethnic groups.In this well timed and provocative quantity, Rogers Brubaker--well identified for his paintings on immigration, citizenship, and nationalism--challenges this pervasive and common-sense ""groupism."" yet he doesn't easily revert to straightforward constructivist tropes in regards to the fluidity and multiplicity of identification. as soon as a bracing problem to traditional knowledge, constructivism has grown complacent, even cliched. That ethnicity is developed is usual; this quantity offers new insights into the way it is developed. by means of transferring the analytical concentration from id to identifications, from teams as entities to group-making tasks, from shared tradition to categorization, from substance to method, Brubaker exhibits that ethnicity, race, and state aren't issues on the planet yet views at the global: methods of seeing, examining, and representing the social world."
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Extra resources for Ethnicity without Groups
They can be primed or cued subliminally, and can influence subjects' judgments without their awareness. This does not mean that stereotypes are wholly beyond conscious control, but it does mean that stereotyping is deeply rooted in ordinary cognitive processes and that countering or correcting stereotypes is effortful and costly (Devine 1989). The content of stereotypes-and therefore their substantive social significance and in particular their perniciousness-is of course highly variable across cultural settings, over time, and across target groups.
We employ categories whenever we "see something as a kind of thing ... [or] reason about kinds of things"; we do so equally, it should be emphasized, whenever we-persons, organizations, or states-talk about kinds of things, or treat something as a kind of thing (or as a kind of person, a kind of action, or a kind of situation). Categories are utterly central to seeing and thinking, but they are equally central to talking and acting. "Without the ability to categorize, we could not function at all, either in the physical world or in our social and intellectual lives" (Lakoff 1987: 5-6).
One might be tempted to say that the people marked in circle A constitute a group, with an "identity" of A, as distinct from those in circle B, with an "identity" of B. Yet the very move which distinguishes A and B also shows their relatedness, as one moves back two generations and finds a common ancestor. If someone in A Case from Africanist Anthropology: "The" Nuer Identitarian thinking in African studies is most extreme, and most problematic, in journalistic accounts that see primordial "tribal identities" as the main cause of Africa's woes.
Ethnicity without Groups by Rogers Brubaker