By Peter Achinstein
The essays during this quantity handle 3 basic questions within the philosophy of technological know-how: what's required for a few truth to be facts for a systematic speculation? What does it suggest to claim scientist or a idea explains a phenomenon? should still medical theories that postulate "unobservable" entities equivalent to electrons be construed realistically as aiming to properly describe an international underlying what's at once observable, or should still such theories be understood as aiming to properly describe basically the observable global? unusual thinker of technology Peter Achinstein offers solutions to every of those questions in essays written over a interval of greater than forty years. the current quantity brings jointly his very important formerly released essays, permitting the reader to confront probably the most uncomplicated and demanding concerns within the philosophy of technological know-how, and to contemplate Achinstein's many influential contributions to the answer of those concerns. He offers a idea of proof that relates this idea to chance and clarification; a concept of clarification that relates this idea to an explaining act in addition to to the various ways that causes are to be evaluated; and an empirical safety of medical realism that invokes either the concept that of facts and that of clarification.
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Extra resources for Evidence, Explanation, and Realism: Essays in Philosophy of Science
This new fact boosts the probability of my winning almost a thousand-fold, from 1/1 million to 1/1,001. On the present view, this new fact is not only evidence that I will win but also much stronger evidence for this than the information available on Monday. 38 Evidence and Induction Let me say why I believe such notions of evidence are too weak for scientists to take an interest in. Why do scientists and others want evidence for their theories? What does evidence that h give you? My answer is that it gives you a good reason to believe h.
In addition I prove that (A) obtains if and only if the product p(there is an explanatory connection between h and e/h&e&b)×p(h/e&b) is greater than ½. Accordingly, the new condition (A) entails the earlier conditions (1) and (2), but not conversely. 2. Veridical Evidence. In the paper the definition is this: e is veridical evidence that h, given b, if and only if (i) e is potential evidence that h, given b; (ii) h is true; and (iii) there is an explanatory connection between h and e. In the book two concepts of veridical evidence are suggested, depending on whether condition (iii) must be satisfied.
Let me mention two cases, one from the nineteenth century, the other quite recent. In 1883 Heinrich Hertz conducted a series of carefully designed experiments with cathode rays to determine whether they are electrically charged (Hertz 1896). He separated the cathode rays from the ordinary electric current that flows from the cathode to the anode, so that the pure cathode rays would enter an electrometer, the deflection 34 Philosophical Theories of Evidence 35 of which would determine the presence of electricity.
Evidence, Explanation, and Realism: Essays in Philosophy of Science by Peter Achinstein