By J M Regenstein; Carrie Regenstein; Beth Kochen
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Additional info for Food protein chemistry: an introduction for food scientists
The real isoelectric point of a protein, unlike those of the amino acids, generally cannot b e calculated from compositional data. Instead, the isoelec tric point (pi) of a protein is defined operationally: It is the p H at which a protein does not migrate in the presence of an electrical field. , when we use a technique like isoelectric focusing), the isoelectric point is the p H at which the protein stops migrating. To continue this line of thinking, we may ask what the isoelectric point indicates in a real solution.
If the observer must rotate the analyzer clockwise, the system is dextrorotatory. This convention defines the direction of the observed rotation. W e often measure the a m o u n t of rotation at a fixed wavelength, usually the D line (589 nm) of sodium. (The sodium D line is actually a doublet of 5 8 9 . 5 9 and 5 8 8 . ) The specific rotation is expressed as [a][ where λ is the wavelength at which the rotation is measured and Τ is the temperature of the measurement. The p H should also b e specified.
Zwitterions d o not exist in the middle of the protein because the free α-carboxyl and the free α-amino are lost in formation of the protein. ) A detailed listing of some individual chemical reac tions of amino acids can be found in Appendix 4-2. ACID-BAS E PROPERTIE S The isoelectric point of an amino acid is the point at which the amino acid has n o net electrical charge. It is an important characteristic for any amino acid, because every amino acid has at least two a c i d - b a s e (titratable) groups.
Food protein chemistry: an introduction for food scientists by J M Regenstein; Carrie Regenstein; Beth Kochen