Download e-book for kindle: Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology, Second Edition by Bharat Bhushan

By Bharat Bhushan

ISBN-10: 0849384028

ISBN-13: 9780849384028

ISBN-10: 1420050494

ISBN-13: 9781420050493

This moment variation of instruction manual of Micro/Nanotribology addresses the swift evolution inside of this box, serving as a reference for the amateur and the professional alike. elements divide this instruction manual: half I covers easy stories, and half II addresses layout, building, and functions to magnetic garage units and MEMS.
Discussions include:

  • surface physics and techniques for bodily and chemically characterizing stable surfaces
  • roughness characterization and static touch types utilizing fractal analysis
  • sliding on the interface and friction on an atomic scale
  • scratching and put on due to sliding
  • nanofabrication/nanomachining in addition to nano/picoindentation
  • lubricants for minimizing friction and wear
  • surface forces and microrheology of skinny liquid films
  • measurement of nanomechanical homes of surfaces and skinny films
  • atomic-scale simulations of interfacial phenomena
  • micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics of magnetic garage devices
    This finished ebook comprises sixteen chapters contributed via greater than 20 overseas researchers. In each one bankruptcy, the presentation starts off with macroconcepts after which bring about microconcepts. With greater than 500 illustrations and 50 tables, instruction manual of Micro/Nanotribology covers the variety of suitable issues, together with characterization of stable surfaces, size recommendations and purposes, and theoretical modeling of interfaces.

    What's New within the moment version? New chapters on:
  • AFM instrumentation
  • Surface forces and adhesion
  • Design and building of magnetic garage devices
  • Microdynamical units and systems
  • Mechanical houses of fabrics in microstructure
  • Micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics of MEMS devices
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    Additional info for Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology, Second Edition

    Sample text

    The multimode AFM, used with a grounded conducting tip, can measure electric field gradients by oscillating the tip near its resonant frequency. When the lever encounters a force gradient from the electric field, the effective spring constant of the cantilever is altered, changing its resonant frequency. Depending on which side of the resonance curve is chosen, the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever increases or decreases due to the shift in the resonant frequency. By recording the amplitude of the cantilever, an image revealing the strength of the electric field gradient is obtained.

    An image of magnetic field gradients is obtained by recording the oscillation amplitude as the tip is scanned over the sample. Topographic information is separated from the electric field gradients and magnetic field images by using a so-called lift mode. Measurements in lift mode are taken in two passes over each scan line. On the first pass, topographical information is recorded in the standard tapping mode where the oscillating cantilever lightly taps the surface. On the second pass, the tip is lifted to a user-selected separation (typically 20 to 200 nm) between the tip and local surface topography.

    The lateral spring constant depends critically on the tip length. Additionally, the tip should be centered at the free end. In the past, cantilevers have been cut by hand from thin metal foils or formed from fine wires. Tips for these cantilevers were prepared by attaching diamond fragments to the ends of the levers by hand, or in the case of wire cantilevers, electrochemically etching the wire to a sharp point. Several cantilever geometries for wire cantilevers have been used. The simplest geometry is the L-shaped cantilever, usually made by bending a wire at a 90° angle.

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    Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology, Second Edition by Bharat Bhushan

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