By Henry S. Kaplan (auth.), Frederick F. Becker (eds.)
The historical past of the advance of melanoma treatment has been marked via a habitual development, certainly one of first and foremost intriguing and inspiring effects as new tools have been brought, by way of dismaying disasters. The extremity of the ailment and its excessive mortality have dictated that every technique of destructive tumor cells will be quickly explored and exploited as a style of treatment, lengthy earlier than the correspond ing idea and procedure have been thoroughly understood and perfected. hence radiation used to be used as an antitumor agent presently following recogni tion of its cytodestructive strength. both consistent, following the speedy usage of recent healing equipment, has been a interval of important technical advancements. This moment element of the development can also be illustrated via the sphere of radiotherapy. New radiation resources, new tools of dosimetry, use of high-energy radiation, and different new concepts allowed the therapist to higher concentration upon the tumor and to enhance the geometry of publicity. therefore, with every one technical enhance, the "reach" of radiotherapy used to be elevated and harm to general tissues used to be reduced. unavoidably, even though, a restrict used to be reached, some degree at which clinicians and researchers discovered they can move no extra with out returning to a extra primary seek, one according to the biology of the tumor phone itself.
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1976, Carcinoma of the nasopharynx: Eighteen years' experience with megavoltage radiation therapy, Cancer 37:2605. , 1954, The development of the linear accelerator as a clinical instrument, Acta Radiol. Suppl. 116:649. HOWES, A. H mouse mammary tumours, Br. J. 42:441. HUSSEY, D. , FLETCHER, G. , AND CADERAO, J. , 1974, Experience with fast neutron therapy using the Texas A & M variable energy cyclotron, Cancer 34:65. INGOLD, J. , REED, G. , KAPLAN, H. , AND BAGSHAW, M. , 1965, Radiation hepatitis, Am.
This may be asymptomatic and discovered only incidentally as a pulmonary infiltrate conforming to the geometry of the treatment field on posttreatment chest radiographs, or may be associated with a dry, hacking, unproductive cough. In more severe instances, this will be associated with shortness of breath and sometimes with fever. In such instances, if appropriate cultures reveal no specific bacterial or fungal organism, and if the pattern of reaction in the lung conforms closely to the outlines of the radiotherapy field, the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis should be entertained, in which case 25 PRESENT STATUS OF RADIATION THERAPY 26 HENRY s.
Since kilovoltage X-rays produce their maximal effects in the skin, a similar radiation reaction known as an epidermitis appears in the skin of each treated field, usually starting slightly later than the associated mucositis, but progressing through a similar peak of severity near the end of treatment, followed by gradual healing. In reactions of moderate severity, erythema may be the only manifestation, whereas more severe reactions progress to vesicle formation and weeping of the skin surface.
Radiotherapy, Surgery, and Immunotherapy by Henry S. Kaplan (auth.), Frederick F. Becker (eds.)